102/1 Determination of Besatz of Wheat

Methods Type:  Generic Methods
Key data
Number: 102/1
Analyte: Besatz
Matrix: Wheat
Year of Approval: 1964
Year of Last Revision: 1972
Scope: This method is applicable to the determination of the different components of Besatz in wheat used for the milling of flour and of semolina. It is not applicable to seed wheat or to wheat for feeding purposes.
Principle: The principle of this method is to separate all the groups of Besatz, defined under 3.2., from the normal basic grains, either by sieving or by manual selection.

Definitions

The term "Besatz" of wheat applies to all components of a wheat sample which differ from the normal basic variety.

  • Classification of Besatz

    Grain dockage
    Broken grains 
    Shrivelled grains 
    Other grains or grains of contrasting varieties 
    Sprouted grains 
    Insect-damaged grains 
    Frost-damaged grains 
    Grains with discoloured germs

    Black dockage
    Weed seeds (toxic; non-toxic) 
    Ergot 
    Unsound grains 
    Smutty grains 
    Impurities and chaff

    Total Besatz
    Total Besatz is the sum of grain dockage and black dockage.

    Animal impurities or impurities of animal origin

    Insect fragments
  • Definition of the different groups of Besatz

    Broken grains 

    The term "broken grains" applies to all grains belonging to the basic variety, which have not been attacked but in which part of the endosperm is exposed. These include bruised grains and grains with the germ knocked out.

    Shrivelled grains
    The term "shrivelled grains" applies to all grains which, after removal of all other groups of Besatz from the wheat sample, pass through a sieve with 2 mm slot-width. Further, all the green, immature grains are included in this group.

    Other grains, grains of contrasting varieties
    This term applies to all cereal grains differing from the normal basic variety and to their Besatz components. In a durum wheat sample all vulgare wheat grains and their Besatz components are to be classified as other grains, and vice versa.

    Sprouted grains
    The term "sprouted grains" applies to all grains in which the radicle or plumule is clearly visible to the naked eye. The general habit of the wheat should, however, be considered in the assessment of the proportion of sprouted grains. In many wheat samples, e.g., in durum, it is a characteristic of the variety that the germ emerges to a considerable extent, so that movement breaks the bran overlaying the germ, giving a false impression of sprouting. Such grains should not be classified as sprouted grains. Sprouted grains are only those in which distinctly visible changes, easily distinguishable from the normal state, have occurred in the germ.

    Insect-damaged grains
    This term applies to all grains showing signs of insect bites or punctures (wheat blossom midges), as well as all grains attacked by wheat bug.

    Frost-damaged grains
    No definition of frost-damaged grains is necessary.

    Grains with discoloured germ
    This term applies to grains with a brown to brown-black colour of the bran (overlying the germ), the germ being intact and showing no signs of sprouting.

    Weed seeds
    No definition of weed seeds is necessary.

    Ergot
    No definition of ergot is necessary.

    Unsound grains
    This term applies to all grains that have become unsuitable for human consumption because of rot, mould, bacterial attack, or other influences, and includes heat-damaged grains. Heat-damaged grains are fully developed grains the bran of which is greybrown to black and the endosperm of which is yellowish grey to brownish black in colour on dissection. Grains attacked by Wheat Blossom Midge (Contarinia tritic Kirby) are to be classified as unsound grains only if secondary mould attack has discoloured more than half of the surface of the grain to a grey to black colour. If the discolouration has affected less than half of the surface of the grain, the grain is to be classified as insect-damaged.

    Smutty grains
    No definition of smutty grains is necessary.

    Impurities and chaff
    These terms apply to all components of a wheat sample which will pass through a sieve with 1 mm slot-width. Stones, mud balls and straws, chaff and similar impurities which are found on the sieve also belong to this group.

    Insect fragments
    No definition of insect fragments is necessary.

    Weevils
    Weevils are grain weevils, as well as other insects which damage grain.

 

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